Newly Published
Editorial Views  |   August 2019
Reporting Laboratory and Animal Research in Anesthesiology: The Importance of Sex as a Biologic Variable
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (L.V.); the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (J.D.C.); and the Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (E.D.K.).
  • Michael M. Todd, M.D., served as Handling Editor for this article.
    Michael M. Todd, M.D., served as Handling Editor for this article.×
  • Accepted for publication July 17, 2019.
    Accepted for publication July 17, 2019.×
  • Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Kharasch: evan.kharasch@duke.edu
Article Information
Editorial Views / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems / Pain Medicine / Pharmacology / Trauma / Burn Care / Quality Improvement / Opioid
Editorial Views   |   August 2019
Reporting Laboratory and Animal Research in Anesthesiology: The Importance of Sex as a Biologic Variable
Anesthesiology Newly Published on August 21, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002945
Anesthesiology Newly Published on August 21, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002945
Biologic differences between the two sexes have been naturally acknowledged from the dawn of humanity. Laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic data now provide ample evidence for sex-specific differences in both disease and drug responses,1  and perioperative medicine is not exempt. For example, sexual dimorphism in response to ischemic brain, cardiac, and renal injury has been repeatedly reported.2–4  The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction is higher in men, and male and female rodents differ in vulnerability to developmental anesthesia neurotoxicity.5,6  Chronic pain is more frequently reported in women, although the effects of sex on postoperative pain are unclear.7  Sex-specific differences have been demonstrated in morphine-induced analgesia and opioid-related side effects.8,9  Postoperative nausea and vomiting are more common in women, and attendant clinical protocols are sex-specific.