Critical Care Medicine  |   September 2019
Driving Pressure Is Associated with Outcome during Assisted Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy (G.B., A.G., S.S., S.G., G.F.); Department of Emergency and Intensive Care, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy (G.B., A.G., S.S., S.G., G.F.); Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Anesthesia, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (B.P.K.); Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy (A.P.).
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    Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).×
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  • The data presented in this manuscript were presented at LIVES 2018 (European Society of Intensive Care Medicine annual congress), held in Paris on October 22, 2018, and at Critical Care Canada Forum, held in Toronto on November 7, 2018.
    The data presented in this manuscript were presented at LIVES 2018 (European Society of Intensive Care Medicine annual congress), held in Paris on October 22, 2018, and at Critical Care Canada Forum, held in Toronto on November 7, 2018.×
  • Submitted for publication November 22, 2018. Accepted for publication April 15, 2019.
    Submitted for publication November 22, 2018. Accepted for publication April 15, 2019.×
  • Address correspondence to Dr. Bellani: University of Milan-Bicocca, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Via Cadore 48, Monza (MB), Italy. giacomo.bellani1@unimib.it. Information on purchasing reprints may be found at www.anesthesiology.org or on the masthead page at the beginning of this issue. Anesthesiology’s articles are made freely accessible to all readers, for personal use only, 6 months from the cover date of the issue.
Article Information
Critical Care Medicine / Clinical Science / Critical Care / Respiratory System
Critical Care Medicine   |   September 2019
Driving Pressure Is Associated with Outcome during Assisted Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Anesthesiology 9 2019, Vol.131, 594-604. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002846
Anesthesiology 9 2019, Vol.131, 594-604. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002846
Abstract

Editor’s Perspective:

What We Already Know about This Topic:

  • Higher driving pressure during controlled mechanical ventilation is known to be associated with increased mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  • Whereas patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome are initially managed with controlled mechanical ventilation, as they improve, they are transitioned to assisted ventilation. Whether higher driving pressure assessed during pressure support (assisted) ventilation can be reliably assessed and whether higher driving pressure is associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome has not been well studied.

What This Article Tells Us That Is New:

  • This study shows that in the majority of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, both driving pressure and respiratory system compliance can be reliably measured during pressure support (assisted) ventilation.

  • Higher driving pressure measured during pressure support (assisted) ventilation significantly associates with increased intensive care unit mortality, whereas peak inspiratory pressure does not.

  • Lower respiratory system compliance also significantly associates with increased intensive care unit mortality.

Background: Driving pressure, the difference between plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), is closely associated with increased mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although this relationship has been demonstrated during controlled mechanical ventilation, plateau pressure is often not measured during spontaneous breathing because of concerns about validity. The objective of the present study is to verify whether driving pressure and respiratory system compliance are independently associated with increased mortality during assisted ventilation (i.e., pressure support ventilation).

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on 154 patients with ARDS in whom plateau pressure during the first three days of assisted ventilation was available. Associations between driving pressure, respiratory system compliance, and survival were assessed by univariable and multivariable analysis. In patients who underwent a computed tomography scan (n = 23) during the stage of assisted ventilation, the quantity of aerated lung was compared with respiratory system compliance measured on the same date.

Results: In contrast to controlled mechanical ventilation, plateau pressure during assisted ventilation was higher than the sum of PEEP and pressure support (peak pressure). Driving pressure was higher (11 [9–14] vs. 10 [8–11] cm H2O; P = 0.004); compliance was lower (40 [30–50] vs. 51 [42–61] ml · cm H2O-1; P < 0.001); and peak pressure was similar, in nonsurvivors versus survivors. Lower respiratory system compliance (odds ratio, 0.92 [0.88–0.96]) and higher driving pressure (odds ratio, 1.34 [1.12–1.61]) were each independently associated with increased risk of death. Respiratory system compliance was correlated with the aerated lung volume (n = 23, r = 0.69, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: In patients with ARDS, plateau pressure, driving pressure, and respiratory system compliance can be measured during assisted ventilation, and both higher driving pressure and lower compliance are associated with increased mortality.