Newly Published
Perioperative Medicine  |   June 2019
Population Kinetics of 0.9% Saline Distribution in Hemorrhaged Awake and Isoflurane-anesthetized Volunteers
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (J.N.); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch Health, Galveston, Texas (H.L., D.S.P., M.P.K., C.H.S.); Master of Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (P.W., V.W.); and Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden (C.H.S.).
  • Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).
    Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).×
  • Submitted for publication February 19, 2018. Accepted for publication April 29, 2019.
    Submitted for publication February 19, 2018. Accepted for publication April 29, 2019.×
  • Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Svensén: Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Unit of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden. christer.svensen@sll.se. Information on purchasing reprints may be found at www.anesthesiology.org or on the masthead page at the beginning of this issue. Anesthesiology’s articles are made freely accessible to all readers, for personal use only, 6 months from the cover date of the issue.
Article Information
Perioperative Medicine / Pharmacology
Perioperative Medicine   |   June 2019
Population Kinetics of 0.9% Saline Distribution in Hemorrhaged Awake and Isoflurane-anesthetized Volunteers
Anesthesiology Newly Published on June 20, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002816
Anesthesiology Newly Published on June 20, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002816
Abstract

Editor’s Perspective:

What We Already Know about This Topic:

  • Volume kinetic modeling is an adaptation of pharmacokinetic modeling that characterizes the disposition of intravenously administered fluids using hemoglobin concentration as a natural tracer

  • Population-based pharmacokinetic analysis enables assessment of variability between individuals and across populations and permits inclusion of covariates such as the presence or absence of anesthetization, body weight, and sex in the data analysis

What This Article Tells Us That Is New:

  • The distribution of infused fluid after hemorrhage (7 ml/kg during 20 min) in a randomized crossover study of 12 healthy volunteers while awake and while isoflurane-anesthetized was described by a two-fluid space model that included study arm, body weight, and sex as covariates

  • Only sex had a statistically significant effect on the area under the plasma dilution curve and maximum plasma dilution, both of which were increased by a median of 17% in females (95% CIs, 1.08 to 1.38 and 1.07 to 1.39, respectively) compared with males

Background: Population-based, pharmacokinetic modeling can be used to describe variability in fluid distribution and dilution between individuals and across populations. The authors hypothesized that dilution produced by crystalloid infusion after hemorrhage would be larger in anesthetized than in awake subjects and that population kinetic modeling would identify differences in covariates.

Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers, seven females and five males, mean age 28 ± 4.3 yr, underwent a randomized crossover study. Each subject participated in two separate sessions, separated by four weeks, in which they were assigned to an awake or an anesthetized arm. After a baseline period, hemorrhage (7 ml/kg during 20 min) was induced, immediately followed by a 25 ml/kg infusion during 20 min of 0.9% saline. Hemoglobin concentrations, sampled every 5 min for 60 min then every 10 min for an additional 120 min, were used for population kinetic modeling. Covariates, including body weight, sex, and study arm (awake or anesthetized), were tested in the model building. The change in dilution was studied by analyzing area under the curve and maximum plasma dilution.

Results: Anesthetized subjects had larger plasma dilution than awake subjects. The analysis showed that females increased area under the curve and maximum plasma dilution by 17% (with 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.38 and 1.07 to 1.39) compared with men, and study arm (anesthetized increased area under the curve by 99% [0.88 to 2.45] and maximum plasma dilution by 35% [0.71 to 1.63]) impacted the plasma dilution whereas a 10-kg increase of body weight resulted in a small change (less than1% [0.93 to 1.20]) in area under the curve and maximum plasma dilution. Mean arterial pressure was lower in subjects while anesthetized (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In awake and anesthetized subjects subjected to controlled hemorrhage, plasma dilution increased with anesthesia, female sex, and lower body weight. Neither study arm nor body weight impact on area under the curve or maximum plasma dilution were statistically significant and therefore no effect can be established.