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Editorial Board

Editor-In-Chief

Evan D. Kharasch, M.D., Ph.D.
Editor-in-Chief, Anesthesiology 
Department of Anesthesiology 
Washington University in St. Louis
St. Louis, MO
Tel:1-800-260-5631
E-mail: editorial-office@anesthesiology.org

Assistant Editor-In-Chief

Michael J. Avram, Ph.D.
Assistant Editor-in-Chief, Anesthesiology 
Northwestern University
Chicago, IL
Tel:1-800-260-5631
E-mail: editorial-office@anesthesiology.org

Executive Editors

Charles D. Collard, M.D.
Houston, TX

Deborah J. Culley, M.D.
Boston, MA

Jerrold H. Levy, M.D., F.A.H.A., F.C.C.M.
Durham, NC

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Boston, MA

Editors

J. David Clark, M.D., Ph.D.
Palo Alto, CA

Andrew Davidson, M.B.B.S., M.D., F.A.N.Z.C.A
Victoria, Australia

Shiroh Isono, M.D.
Chiba, Japan

Brian P. Kavanagh, M.B., F..R.C.P.C.
Toronto, Canada

Sachin Kheterpal, M.D., M.B.A.
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Piyush M. Patel, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
San Diego, CA

Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.
Cleveland, OH

Statistical Editor

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.
Boston, MA

Editorial Office

Managing Editor
Vicki Tedeschi
Email: managing-editor@anesthesiology.org

Allison Akeley

Alice Landwehr

Meg Weist

Karen Parks

Anesthesiology Journal
ASA Headquarters
1061 American Lane
Schaumburg, IL 60173
Tel: 1-800-260-5631; Fax (847) 720-9669
E-mail: editorial-office@anesthesiology.org

Past Editors-In-Chief

Henry S. Ruth, M.D.
1940-1955

Ralph M. Tovell, M.D.
1956-1958

James E. Eckenhoff, M.D.
1959-1962

Leroy D. Vandam, M.D.
1963-1970

Arthur S. Keats, M.D.
1971-1973

Nicholas M. Greene, M.D.
1974-1976

C. Philip Larson. Jr., M.D.
1977-1979

John D. Michenfelder, M.D.
1980-1985

Lawrence J. Saidman, M.D.
1986-1996

Michael M. Todd, M.D.
1997-2006

James C. Eisenach, M.D.
2006-2016

LWW Publication Staff

Publisher
Miranda Walker

Journal Production Editor
Sara Cleary

Journal Production Associate
Colette Lind

National Sales Manager
Ryan Magee

Classified Advertising Representative
Joe Anzuena

Translation, Rights & Licensing
Andrew Wible
translationrights@wolterskluwer.com

Associate Editors

Takashi Asai, M.D., Ph.D.
Osaka, Japan

Brian Thomas Bateman, M.D., M.Sc.
Boston, MA

George S. Bause, M.D., M.P.H.
Cleveland, OH

Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, M.D.
Zurich, Switzerland

Chad Michael Brummett, M.D.
Ann Arbor, MI

John Butterworth, M.D.
Richmond, VA

Steven P. Cohen, M.D.
Baltimore, MD

Albert Dahan, M.D., Ph.D.
Leiden, The Netherlands

Holger K. Eltzschig, M.D., Ph.D.
Houston, TX

Pamela Flood, M.D.
San Francisco, CA

Amanda A. Fox, M.D., M.P.H.
Dallas, TX

Jorge A. Galvez, M.D.
Philadelphia, PA

Laurent Glance, M.D.
Rochester, NY

Stephen Harvey, M.D.
Nashville, TN

Harriet W. Hopf, M.D.
Salt Lake City, UT

Ru-Rong Ji, Ph.D.
Durham, NC

Yandong Jiang, M.D., Ph.D.
Nashville, TN

Cor J. Kalkman, M.D.
Utrect, The Netherlands

Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, M.D.
Charlottesville, VA

Kate Leslie, M.B.B.S., M.D., M.Epi., F.A.N.Z.C.A.
Parkville, Australia

Martin J. London, M.D.
San Francisco, CA

George A. Mashour, M.D., Ph.D.
Ann Arbor, MI

Jochen D. Muehlschlegel, M.D.
Boston, MA

Paul S. Myles, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., M.D., F.F.A.R.C.S.I., F.A.N.Z.C.A.
Melbourne, Australia

Peter Nagele, M.D., M.Sc.
St. Louis, MO

Mark D. Neuman, M.D., M.Sc.
Philadelphia, PA

Craig M. Palmer, M.D.
Tucson, AZ

Cyril Rivat, M.D.
Paris, France

Warren S. Sandberg, M.D., Ph.D.
Nashville, TN

Alan Jay Schwartz, M.D., M.S.Ed.
Philadelphia, PA

Allan F. Simpao, M.D., M.B.I.
Philadelphia, PA

Nikolaos J. Skubas, M.D.
Cleveland, OH

Jamie W. Sleigh, M.D.
Hamilton, New Zealand

Bobbie Jean Sweitzer, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Chicago, IL

Marcos F. Vidal Melo, M.D., Ph.D.
Boston, MA

Laszlo Vutskits, M.D.
Geneva, Switzerland

Hannah Wunsch, M.D., M.Sc.
Toronto, Canada

ASA Officers

President
Jeffrey Plagenhoef, M.D.,

President-Elect
James D. Grant, M.D., M.B.A.

Immediate Past President
Daniel J. Cole, M.D..

First Vice-President
Linda J. Mason, M.D. Vice-President for Scientific Affairs
Beverly K. Philip, M.D.

CME Editors

Leslie C. Jameson, M.D.

Dan J. Kopacz, M.D.

Cover Art

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Boston, MA

Annemarie B. Johnson, C.M.I.
Winston-Salem, NC

Editors

Evan D. Kharasch, M.D., Ph.D.
Editor-in-Chief 

Russell D. and Mary B. Shelden Professor of Anesthesiology and Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at Washington University in St. Louis, Adjunct Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at St. Louis College of Pharmacy, and the Founding Director of the St. Louis Center for Clinical Pharmacology

Dr. Kharasch’s research interests include basic, translational and clinical pharmacology of analgesics, anesthetics, and addiction therapies, focusing on drug metabolism, transport, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, drug interactions, variability in patient response, and clinical outcomes. Additional research focuses on biomarker development for cancer detection and differential diagnosis, and applications of nanotechnology for development of novel molecular diagnostics. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Kharasch is a consultant to TEN Healthcare, gave a lecture at Astra-Zeneca, and attended a meeting at The Medicines Company.

Michael J. Avram, Ph.D.
Executive Editor

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Avram's research interests include pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a variety of drugs, including intravenous anesthetics, muscle relaxants, and analgesics.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Avram is a consultant has been a consultant for Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Charles D. Collard, M.D.
Executive Editor

Professor & Anesthesiologist-in-Chief, St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital and the Texas Heart Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Dr. Collard's research interests include perioperative genomics, inflammation, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. Dr. Collard has extensive clinical experience with regard to cardiothoracic and vascular surgery, including transplantation (heart, lung, liver and kidney), aortic surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, circulatory arrest, and transesophageal echocardiography.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Collard is currently or has in the past received funding from the following: NIH, FAER, SCA, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Hemosol, Pharmacia Corporation (now Pfizer), Eisai Medical Research, Xoma (US) LLC, The Medicines Company, Ischemia Research and Education Foundation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston GCRC, Avant Immunotherapeutics, Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Allon Therapeutics, Talecris, Hospira, Cecoura Therapeutics, Allon Therapeutics, Quark Pharmaceuticals, Hoffman-LaRoche, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Takeda, Hospira, Cubist Pharmaceduticals, Inocoll Pharmaceuticals, Schering-Plough, Merck & Co. Inc., Zoll Inc., Allocure Inc., Canyon Pharmaceuticals, Nonin Medical, Inc, and Novartis. He has done trials for Thrasos therapeutics and Dalcor Pharma in the past year.

Deborah J. Culley, M.D.
Executive Editor

Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative And Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Dr. Culley’s research interests focus on the effects of surgery and anesthesia on the aged brain. The majority of efforts in our laboratory aim to identify mechanisms, and risk factors for the development of short-term (delirium) and long-term (postoperative cognitive dysfunction) cognitive alterations following routine surgery and anesthesia in aged rodents. Recently the research team has been expanded to include clinical studies on patient factors that may contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive alterations in elders.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Culley receives an Honorarium as a Director of the American Board of Anesthesiology, is a member of the Anesthesiology RRC at ACGME, Vice Chair of the 3C at ABMS, Immediate Past President of SNACC and is currently funded by the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, CRICO, and NIA/NIH.

Jerrold H. Levy, M.D., F.A.H.A., F.C.C.M.
Executive Editor

Dr. Levy completed his residency in Anesthesiology at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, where he was Chief Resident, and a fellow in cardiac anesthesiology and respiratory intensive care. He previously was Professor of Anesthesiology and Deputy Chairman for Research in the Department of Anesthesiology at Emory University School of Medicine, in the Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Division and in the Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Currently he is Professor of Anesthesiology and Associate Professor of Surgery at Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, and is the CoDirector of the Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit.

Dr. Levy’s research interests include hemostasis, acute inflammation and anaphylactic reactions, cardiovascular pharmacology, and vascular physiology. His clinical interests are cardiothoracic anesthesiology and critical care medicine. He has been active in developing therapeutic approaches to perioperative hemostatic management, anticoagulation and reversal, and transfusion alternatives. Some of his current research efforts are the application of biotechnology in clinical medicine, developing purified and recombinant novel agents that can be administered to modulate inflammation, hemostasis, and treating or preventing bleeding.

Conflicts of Interest: Within the past three years Dr. Levy has served or serves on research steering committees, data safety monitoring boards, or advisory boards for Boehringer-Ingelheim, Celgene, CSL Behring, Dova, Grifols, Instrumentation Laboratories, Octapharma, Janssen, Leading Biosciences, Merck,  Portola, and Pfizer.

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Executive Editor

Professor and Chair, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital 

Dr. Rathmell's research interests include imaging in regional anesthesia and pain medicine, outcomes following intervention for the treatment of chronic pain, and pain management during pregnancy and lactation.

Shiroh Isono, M.D.
Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan

Dr. Isono's areas of expertise and interest include respiratory physiology and sleep medicine, particularly the pathophysiology of upper airway maintenance in unconscious subjects. His clinical interests include perioperative airway management.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Isono’s department receives research support from MSD, COVIDIEN Japan, Baxter, Pacific Medico, and Nihon Kohden.

Piyush M. Patel, M.D., F.R.C.P.C
Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at San Diego

Dr. Patel's research interests are focused on enhancing neuroplasticity by up regulating cave-in-1 levels in neurons. Caveolin-1 up regulation increases pro-growth, pro-survival signaling by increasing receptor complements and downstream signaling of processes that increase neuronal growth. In addition, the vulnerability of neurons to various stress is reduced. Upregulation of caveolin-1 in the brain has potential applications in CNS regeneration after ischemic or traumatic brain injury, and in neurodegenerative disorders.

A second more recent area of interest is anesthetic neurotoxicity. Anesthetic exposure during the period of synaptogenesis in the postnatal rodent brain leads to widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration. Our laboratory efforts are directed at the study of the mechanisms by which anesthetic agents interfere with synaptogenesis and how this interference leads to neuronal apoptosis.

Conflicts of Interest: None

Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.
Editor

Dr. Sessler attended medical school at Columbia University, and subsequently completed pediatric and anesthesia residencies at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is currently the Michael Cudahy Professor and Chair of the Department of Outcomes Research at the Cleveland Clinic and Director of the Outcomes Research Consortium. Dr. Sessler has published a book on therapeutic hypothermia and more than 600 full research papers including a dozen in the New England Journal of Medicine and Lancet. His papers have been cited more than 23,000 times. He has been a principal or coinvestigator on grants exceeding $35 million, with more than half from NIH and other peer-reviewed sources. Dr. Sessler has given invited lectures at more than 340 institutions. Among his awards is a Fulbright Fellowship and the 2002 American Society of Anesthesiologists Excellence in Research prize.

Conflicts of interest: Advisory Boards (3M, 37 Company), consultant (B. Braun, Edwards, Medtronic, Pacira), stock options (E-Motion, Medasense, Calorint, VitaHEAT)  Board of Directors (FAER), Funded Research (Dept of Defense, NIH, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Fresenius, Merck, Advanced Cooling, 3M, La Jolla, Sotera Wireless). All temperature-related fees are donated to charity.

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.
Statistical Editor

Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Dr. Houle's clinical and research interests are migraine headache, behavioral medicine, chronic pain, time-series analytical approaches, and experimental design.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Houle is currently a statistical consultant for Depomed, Inc.

Takashi Asai, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan

Dr. Asai’s research interest includes airway management, gastrointestinal motility, epidural anaesthesia, statistical analysis, and medical ethics.

Conflict of interest: Dr. Asai has received honoraria for giving lectures from the manufacturers and distributors of the laryngeal mask airway, the i-gel, and the Pentax-AWS.

Brian Thomas Bateman, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School and faculty member, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Dr. Bateman's research interests focus on the epidemiology of pregnancy complications, medication safety in pregnancy, and patterns of medication use and drug safety in the perioperative period.

Funding: National Institutes of Health, Icelandic Centre for Research, SOAP/Gertie Marx Trust. Research grants: Pfizer, Baxalta, and Lilly.  Consulting fees: Obstetric hemorrhage quality improvement project, Association of Women's Health, Obstetric & Neonatal Nurses, and Optum.

George S. Bause, M.D., M.P.H..
Associate Editor

Dr. Bause earned his M.P.H. (Epidemiology) and M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. Following his rotating internship and residency in Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at Johns Hopkins, he drafted America’s first fellowship in geriatric anesthesiology (NIH-Hopkins). After teaching at Yale (1985-92) as an associate professor, Dr. Bause served in Cleveland as both Whitacre Director of Anesthesiology Education at Meridia Huron Hospital and clinical associate professor in the Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine at Case Western Reserve University.

Since starting anesthesia departmental museums at Johns Hopkins and at Yale, Dr. Bause has served as the honorary curator (1987-current) of the ASA’s Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology (WLM). He has shipped or hand-carried rare books or anesthesia antiques back to the WLM from all seven continents. Dr. Bause has also served as both a guest editor of Anesthesia & Analgesia and as founding deputy editor of the Journal of Anesthesia History. After examining an international pool of candidates, the WLM Laureate Committee has designated Dr. Bause as the Wood Library-Museum Laureate of the History of Anesthesia (2016-2020).

Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, and Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center of Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Visiting Clinical Professor at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago.

Dr. Beck-Schimmer’s research interests include inflammation and immunopathology and the translation to cardiothoracic and liver anesthesia including transplantation. A main focus is organ protection by local and general anesthetics in acute lung and liver injury, which is explored in basic and clinical research. Another focus area is nanomedicine, the effects of nanoparticles on different cell types and tissues, and potential future therapeutic applications.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Beck-Schimmer has received research funding and honoraria from Baxter. She is a member of the National Research Council of the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Chad Michael Brummett, M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Brummett is a graduate of the Indiana University School of Medicine. After completing residency in anesthesiology at the University of Michigan, he trained in pain medicine at Johns Hopkins University. He has been faculty at the University of Michigan since 2007 where he is the Director of Clinical Anesthesia and Pain Research. He also serves as the Associate Chair for Faculty Affairs.

Dr. Brummett was the first to describe the use of peripheral perineural dexmedetomidine, and his early research focused on the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of dexmedetomidine added to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks. He has since translated that work to humans. His new interests include predictors of chronic postsurgical pain and failure to derive benefit for interventions for interventions and surgeries done primarily for pain. In particular, Dr. Brummett is interested in the impact of a fibromyalgia-like or centralized pain phenotype on analgesic outcomes after surgery and interventions for chronic pain.

Conflicts of interest: Conflicts of interest: Dr. Brummett is a consultant for Heron Therapeutics and Recro Pharma. He receives research funding from Neuros Medical, Inc (Willoughby, OH). Dexmedetomidine patent: The University of Michigan holds a patent covering the use of perineural dexmedetomidine for in regional anesthesia. Brummett CM, Inventor; The Regents of the University of Michigan, Assignee; Anesthetic Methods and Compositions; US patent application US 12/791,506; Issue date 04/02/2013.

John F. Butterworth, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor and Chairman, Department of Anesthesiology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia

Dr. Butterworth’s research interests include local anesthetic pharmacology and toxicity, clinical pharmacology, cardiothoracic anesthesia, regional anesthesia and acute pain, and legal and economic issues related to anesthetic practice. Dr. Butterworth’s clinical practice includes thoracic, regional, and “generalist” anesthesia.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Butterworth served in the past as a consultant to various pharmaceutical manufacturers. He owns stock in Cerner Corporation, but has no other current financial conflicts of interest under the definitions used by Anesthesiology or Virginia Commonwealth University.

Steven P. Cohen, M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Steven P. Cohen obtained his medical degree at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, completed an anesthesiology residency at Columbia University, and a pain management fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital. Currently, he is Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine, as well as Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He is also Director of the Blaustein Pain Treatment Center, Medical Education and Quality Assurance for the Pain Management Division at Johns Hopkins, and Director of Pain Research at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

Dr. Cohen has been very active in teaching and pain research in recent years, having published over 250 peer-reviewed articles, reviews and book chapters in the past 15 years. Among his major contributions are the development of an FDA-approved technique for treating sacroiliac joint pain (lateral branch radiofrequency denervation), inventing the intravenous ketamine test to help guide treatment in patients with chronic pain, and performing the first studies evaluating the epidural administration of biological agents for pain. These articles have been featured in some of the top general medical journals including “Lancet”, “CMAJ”, “BMJ”, “Annals of Internal Medicine”, “JAMA-Internal Medicine”. His research has been the subject of articles in the Science Section of the New York Times on 4 separate occasions. He has been the first author on the “Pain” chapter in the last 2 editions of “Cecil Textbook of Medicine”, and was listed in 2014 as one of the top 10 experts in the world for back pain based on quantitative analysis of publications.

In addition to his academic work, Dr. Cohen is a retired Colonel in the U.S. Army, and was deployed 4 times in support of operations in Bosnia, Iraq and Afghanistan. He also serves as the Reserve Liaison to the Pain Management Consultants to the U.S. Army and Navy Surgeons General. Dr. Cohen has previously presented data on pain management in service members to the U.S. Congress, FDA and General Officers. His research was instrumental in the passage of the 2008 Military Pain Care Act, and he served as an inaugural member of the U.S. Army Medical Advisory Board. His previous awards include the American Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine John J. Bonica Award, ASIPP Public Service Award, Donlin M. Long Pain Award, Michael J. Cousins Award Lecture, American Academy of Pain Medicine Founder’s Award, the Order of Military Medical Merit, and the Legion of Merit.

Albert Dahan, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Professor of Anesthesiology at Leiden University Medical Center.

Dr. Dahan graduated from de Free University in Amsterdam (MD) and Leiden University (PhD). He is head of Research at the Department of Anesthesiology. He founded and heads the Anesthesia & Pain Research Unit since 1995, a non-profit academic institute that performs outcome research in anesthesia and pain management aimed at improvement of care in anesthesia and pain treatment and the wide distribution of gained knowledge, in close cooperation with non-academic partners.

Conflict of Interest: In the last 5 years Dr. Dahan received educational grants, consultancy fees and/or speaker fees from the following sponsors: Medasense Biometrics Ltd. (Israel), MSD BV (Netherlands), Grünenthal GmbH (Germany), Eurocept BV (Netherlands), Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands), Revive Therapeutics (Canada) and Galleon Pharmaceuticals Corp. (US).

Holger K. Eltzschig, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

As a physician scientist trained in anesthesiology and critical care medicine, Dr. Eltzschig is a funded investigator to study the role of hypoxia-elicited adaptive responses in the context of acute organ injury. Many surgical patients experience acute organ injury in their perioperative course, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat acute organ injury—such as acute kidney or lung injury, intestinal inflammation, or myocardial ischemia are very limited. Dr. Eltzschig’s laboratory is particularly interested in studying endogenous adaptive pathways that are under the control of hypoxia-inducible factors. They have applied these molecular concepts in a wide range of disease models that are important for the field of anesthesiology and critical care medicine, including myocardial ischemia, acute kidney injury, liver ischemia or acute lung injury and intestinal inflammation. Many of our studies point toward an adaptive role for hypoxia-elicited signaling pathways, for example, by attenuating hypoxia-associated inflammation or promoting ischemia tolerance. They are currently exploring translational approaches to take these findings from bench to bedside, and they anticipate that some of these findings will lead to novel approaches to prevent or treat acute organ injury in patients who require major surgery or suffer from critical illness.

Dr. Eltzschig’s research laboratory is particularly devoted toward providing junior investigators with unique training and career opportunities. As such, he has trained many scientists and physician scientists from the field of anesthesiology, surgery, immunology, and critical care medicine. Several of his trainees went on to become funded investigators (e.g., via NIH K08 or R01 mechanisms) or took over academic leadership roles.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Eltzschig received a honorarium and travel expenses from Novartis in 2015.

Amanda A. Fox, M.D., M.P.H.
Associate Editor

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Dallas, TX

Dr. Fox's research centers on identifying genetic variants and biomarkers associated with short and longer-term adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. Dr. Fox's present research focuses on predictors of heart failure and quality of life after primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Fox has received financial support for research from the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research, and the American Geriatrics Society.

Laurent Glance, M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Glance is Professor (with tenure) and Vice-Chair for Research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine.

Dr. Glance obtained his M.D. at Cornell and his undergraduate degree at Dartmouth. He is a cardiac anesthesiologist who trained at New York-Presbyterian Hospital (Cornell) for residency and Memorial Sloan-Kettering for critical care medicine. He is the past recipient of a Research Career Development Grant (K08 HS11295) from AHRQ, which focused on the optimization of risk-adjustment methodologies for measuring Intensive Care Unit quality.

Dr. Glance was the PI on an AHRQ-funded R01 grant (R01 HS016737) (2007-2013). This grant uses the National Trauma Databank as a platform to determine whether providing hospitals with trauma report cards will lead to improved population outcomes in trauma. This work has led to the development of a highly innovative empiric-based approach to trauma injury scoring using either clinical data or ICD-9-CM codes, published in the Annals of Surgery, as an alternative to the expert-based injury severity scoring system currently in use. The Trauma Mortality Prediction Model, developed through this grant, has been adopted for use by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

To address one of the primary limitations of trauma registry data, this project also validated the use of multiple imputation for handling missing data in the context of quality measurement. This grant also examined whether higher-quality trauma care is associated with lower cost and whether failure-to-rescue is an important mechanism driving outcome differences across trauma center. The project also explored the relationship between (1) National Quality Forum safety practices and trauma outcomes; and (2) American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma Quality Indicators and trauma outcomes. The PI previously completed an AHRQ-funded project (R01 HS 13617) focusing on the implications of the present-on-admission (POA) indicator in administrative data to differentiate preexisting conditions from complications. This grant was scored in the top 1st percentile. This work led to publications showing that the addition of the present-on-admission (POA) indicator enhances the ability of existing comorbidity algorithms to map ICD-9-CM codes to diagnostic categories accurately, and that the use of routine administrative data without POA information to construct hospital quality report cards may result in the misidentification of hospital quality outliers.

Dr. Glance serves on the Editorial Board of Critical Care Medicine, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Committee on Performance and Outcomes Measurement, and the Advisory Panel for the ASA-sponsored Anesthesiology Quality Institute. Dr. Glance is helping to spearhead the development of the ACOG-ASA Maternal Quality Improvement Program (MQIP): a joint and equal partnership between the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) to collect outcomes data on the clinical course of childbirth in the US. These data will be used to improve the quality of maternal care at the local level, establish national performance benchmarks for obstetrics and obstetrical anesthesia, and facilitate comparative effectiveness research.

Stephen Harvey, M.D.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Dr. Harvey received his M.D. from the University of Tennessee. He completed his internship at Methodist University Hospital in Memphis and his residency at St-Luke's Roosevelt Hospital in New York City. He is medical director for the Vanderbilt Hybrid Surgical Center. His clinical areas of interest include airway management, regional and ambulatory anesthesia. Dr. Harvey is passionate about creative writing, especially poetry, and the crossroads of medicine and the humanities. He is a candidate in the Masters of Fine Arts Program at Murray State University..

Harriet W. Hopf, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Anesthesiology, Adjunct Professor, Department of Bioengineering and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs (School of Medicine) University of Utah

Dr. Hopf’s research focuses on preventing surgical site infections, improving research training in anesthesiology, and developing promotion and tenure policies that align with institutional mission and value. Dr. Hopf serves on the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) Academy of Research Mentors in Anesthesiology and the FAER Board of Directors. She was elected to the UCSF Academy of Medical Educators in 2004 and the University of Utah Academy of Health Sciences Educators in 2014. She received the FAER Mentoring Excellence in Research Award in 2013.

Ru-Rong Ji, Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Distinguished Professor of Duke University, Professor of Anesthesiology and Neurobiology, Chief of Pain Research, Duke University Health Center

Dr. Ji’s research focuses on chronic pain mechanisms and development of novel pain therapeutics. His group studies how neuroinflammation, glial cells, and ion channels regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in chronic pain. He is internationally recognized for demonstrating important roles of MAP kinase signaling pathways, glial cells, and neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. His recent work also demonstrates unique mechanisms of specialized pro-resolution mediators (e.g., resolvins and protectins), secreted miRNAs, chemokines, TLRs, and stem cells in pain regulation. Dr. Ji has published 160 peer-reviewed papers, including many papers in top medical and neuroscience journals. Before moving to Duke University, he had been a faculty member at Harvard Medical School for 14 years.

Conflict of interest: Editorial board member of Pain, Neuroscience, and Neuroscience Bulletin, recipient of grant funds from NIH, consult for Archelios.   

Yandong Jiang, Ph.D., M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Yandong Jiang is a Professor of the Department of Anesthesiology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

Dr. Jiang received his Ph.D. in Medical biochemistry from the Ohio State University, and his M.D. from Qingdao Medical College, China. He served his internship at the Metro West Medical Center, Framingham, MA and was a resident in the Department of Perioperative and Pain Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr. Jiang joined the Harvard faculty in 2002 where he served as an Assistant Professor and then Associate Professor until his new employment as Professor at Vanderbilt University, April 2015.

At Vanderbilt, Dr. Jiang divides his time between clinical practice and research. He has clinical and research interests in pulmonary physiology Dr. Jiang’s specific research interests include: airway management, pulmonary physiology, mechanical ventilation and outcome study.

Conflicts of interest: None.

Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, M.D.
Associate Editor

Denver, CO

Kate Leslie, MBBS, MD, MEpid, MHlthServMt, FANZCA, FAHMS
Associate Editor

Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Anaesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Unit, and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Melbourne; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University.

Prof. Leslie's research interests include awareness and depth of anaesthesia, sedation and intravenous anaesthesia, and large clinical trials in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine. She is the current chair of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Clinical Trials Network. Dr. Leslie's clinical interests include neurosurgery, general surgery and trauma surgery.

Conflicts of Interest: Prof. Leslie has no conflict of interest to declare.

Martin J. London, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor of Clinical Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, and Attending Anesthesiologist, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California

Dr. London’s clinical areas include adult cardiac and vascular anesthesia, “generalist” anesthesia, and perioperative/medical critical care. His current research interests focus on pharmacoepidemiology of perioperative cardiovascular medications using large VA databases. Prior studies have focused on health care delivery, monitoring strategies and fast tracking for cardiac surgery, implications of perioperative ischemia in noncardiac surgery, effects of colloidal volume expanders in cardiac surgery and the coronary circulation during hypothermia. He is active in educational initiatives, particularly those related to perioperative transesophageal echocardiography.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. London has no conflicts of interest.

George A. Mashour, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Associate Dean for Clinical & Translational Research; Director, Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research; Director, Center for Consciousness Science; Bert N. La Du Professor & Associate Chair of Anesthesiology Research, Faculty; Neuroscience Graduate Program; University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Mashour is an anesthesiologist and neuroscientist whose primary scholarly interest relates to consciousness and anesthesia. Dr. Mashour’s clinical research focuses on neurologic and psychiatric outcomes of surgery. His laboratory investigates mechanisms of unconsciousness during sleep and anesthesia. His theoretical research group explores network science approaches to understanding consciousness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. In addition to numerous peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Mashour has edited four textbooks related to anesthesiology and the neurosciences.

Funding: Funding: National Institutes of Health, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Disclosures: Disclosures: Patent pending (through the University of Michigan) on measures of connectivity for brain monitoring (Application No.: 13/804,706, Filed March 14, 2013, “System and Method to Assess Causal Signaling in the Brain during States of Consciousness”); co-inventor, AlertWatch.

Jochen (Danny) Muehlschlegel, MD, MMSc
Associate Editor

Director, Cardiovascular Anesthesia Research, Associate Professor of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Dr. Muehlschlegel’s research interests center on the impact of genetic variation upon adverse cardiovascular events, and their significance on a functional level. He is the principal investigator of the TRANSCRIBE study, examining the genetics of gene expression in human myocardium at baseline and after exposure to ischemia by performing an eQTL analysis, and the RECHARGE study, in which he aims to identify variants associated with Rheumatic Heart Disease in a Rwandan cohort of cardiac surgical patients.

Dr. Muehlschlegel’s clinical interests are cardiac anesthesiology with significant subspecialty training in all aspects of cardiac disease and transesophageal echocardiography. His particular expertise is in the area of myocardial injury and its association with cardiac specific biomarker elevation, as well as in defining the role that the ECG has in the acute myocardial injury setting immediately post cardiac surgery.

Conflict of interest: none

Paul Myles

I am part-funded by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Practitioner Fellowship. I am an editor of the British Journal of Anaesthesia, and a member of the editorial board of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

Peter Nagele, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Editor

Associate Professor, Departments of Anesthesiology and Genetics, and Chief, Section of Trauma Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Nagele's research interests are cardiovascular risk in the perioperative period, clinical trials, perioperative beta-blocker therapy, myocardial infarction, cardiac biomarkers, nitrous oxide and its novel use in major depression. His clinical interests are in civilian and military trauma, pre-hospital emergency medicine, resuscitation cardiac arrest.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Nagele has received research funding from Roche Diagnostics, Abbott, Express Scripts. He has intellectual property claims in the use of nitrous oxide in depression and related disorders. 

Mark D. Neuman, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Editor

Philadelphia, PA Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Assistant Professor of Medicine (Geriatrics), Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics.

Dr. Neuman's clinical areas include adult general anesthesia, anesthesia for older adults, and anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. His current research interests focus on comparing the effectiveness of different anesthesia techniques for improving patient-centered outcomes after hip fracture surgery. Prior studies have employed large retrospective databases to address questions of comparative effectiveness in the perioperative setting, and to examine the health-system factors associated with adverse outcomes among older adults undergoing major surgical procedures.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Neuman has no conflicts of interest.

Craig M. Palmer, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona

Dr. Palmer is in active clinical practice at Banner-University Medical Center in Tucson, AZ. Research interests include obstetric anesthesia, particularly regional anesthesia for labor and delivery, anesthesia for cesarean delivery, and intrathecal opioids for labor and post-partum/post-operative analgesia.

Conflict of interest: Dr. Palmer has received a Fulbright scholarship to teach and study in Novi Sad, Serbia beginning in January 2016, funded by the U.S. Department of State.

Cyril Rivat, M.D.
Associate Editor

Associate Professor at University of Montpellier and at the Institution of Neuroscience in Montpellier (INM) INSERM U1051, Paris, France.

Dr Rivat’s research interests focus on the identification of the molecular mechanisms at the central and peripheral nervous system that underlie the transition from acute to chronic pain. That involves long-term plasticity induced by incisional surgery, peripheral nerve lesion, large doses of opioid and stress. Current efforts are directed at the study of the neuroimmune communication in the maintenance of peripheral neuropathic pain. Dr Rivat is also interested in developing pharmacological multimodal interventions to limit pain chronification.

Warren S. Sandberg, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Warren Sandberg is Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and professor of anesthesiology, surgery, and biomedical informatics.

Dr. Sandberg received his Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology from the University of Chicago, and his M.D. from the University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine. He served his internship at the University of Chicago Hospitals and was a resident/fellow in the Department of Anesthesia/Critical Care at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Sandberg joined the Harvard faculty in 1998 where he served until his selection as chair at Vanderbilt, April 2010.

At Vanderbilt, Dr. Sandberg divides his time between clinical practice, research, and administration. He has a deep clinical and research interest in the development and use of informatics in anesthesiology, and Vanderbilt is a recognized national leader in informatics, quality and health outcomes research. Dr. Sandberg’s specific research interests include: factors affecting physician-patient communication, patient care technology, perioperative systems design, and OR workflow management. In his role as Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology, his goal is to leverage forward thinking technologists and the already present capabilities of the institution to develop a world class anesthesia informatics and real-time decision support research program.

Conflicts of interest: None.

Alan Jay Schwartz, M.D., M.S.Ed.
Associate Editor

Director of Education, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Schwartz’s interests include clinical care and education with special emphasis on pediatric and cardiothoracic anesthesiology and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Dr. Schwartz has nothing to disclose.

Allan F. Simpao, M.D., M.B.I.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Simpao's current research interests focus on clinical informatics and applying visual analytics to health care databases for outcomes analysis and quality improvement. He has lectured nationally on social media ethics and professionalism and physicians' use of social media for networking, education and advocacy. His clinical expertise is in pediatric and fetal anesthesia.

BobbieJean Sweitzer, MD, FACP
Associate Editor

Professor of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Professor of Medicine, Director, Anesthesia Perioperative Medicine Clinic, University of Chicago

Dr. BobbieJean Sweitzer completed a residency in internal medicine after graduation from Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine. After practicing medicine for a number of years she completed residency training in anesthesiology at Massachusetts General Hospital. After many years on staff at Harvard Medical School she returned to Chicago and currently works at the University of Chicago. She is an author and editor of the Handbook of Preoperative Assessment and Management (1st and 2nd editions) and has written numerous publications on perioperative medicine, including chapters in Miller’s Anesthesia, 7th and 8th editions; Anesthesiology by Longnecker, et al, 1st and 2nd editions; and Basics of Anesthesia, Stoelting and Miller, 6th edition.

Journal articles by Dr. Sweitzer are: Preanesthesia evaluation for ambulatory surgery: do we make a difference? Curr Opin Anesthesiol 26:669-676, 2013; CPAP adherence in patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea prior to elective surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 8:501-506, 2012; 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation are usually incorrectly applied by anesthesiology residents evaluating simulated patients. Anesth Analg 112:940-949, 2011; The relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin and perioperative glucose control in patients with diabetes Can J Anaesth 57:322-9, 2010; and Identification and evaluation of the patient with lung disease. Med Clin N Am 93:1017, 2009.

She lectures extensively on preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients having anesthesia. Her academic interests include perioperative management of high risk patients and effects on perioperative outcomes. Dr. Sweitzer is a founding member of the Governing Board, and immediate past President of the Society of Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement.

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