Newly Published
Perioperative Medicine  |   March 2019
Disruption of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Homeostasis in Adolescent Rats after Neonatal Anesthesia
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Anesthesiology (N.L., N.A., C.K., Z.Z.) and Department of Neurology (H.P.G.), University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia; School of Medicine (R.S.), Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Graduate Program (K.A.S.), and Department of Pharmacology (M.P.B.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.
  • Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).
    Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).×
  • Portions of this work were presented previously at the Association of University Anesthesiologists 2018 Annual Meeting, April 26–27, Chicago, Illinois, and the International Anesthesia Research Society 2018 Annual Meeting, April 28–May 1, Chicago, Illinois.
    Portions of this work were presented previously at the Association of University Anesthesiologists 2018 Annual Meeting, April 26–27, Chicago, Illinois, and the International Anesthesia Research Society 2018 Annual Meeting, April 28–May 1, Chicago, Illinois.×
  • Submitted for publication February 18, 2018. Accepted for publication January 30, 2019.
    Submitted for publication February 18, 2018. Accepted for publication January 30, 2019.×
  • Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Lunardi: 1215 Lee Street, 4748 Steele Wing, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908. NL3F@virginia.edu. Information on purchasing reprints may be found at www.anesthesiology.org or on the masthead page at the beginning of this issue. Anesthesiology’s articles are made freely accessible to all readers, for personal use only, 6 months from the cover date of the issue.
Article Information
Perioperative Medicine / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems / Pediatric Anesthesia / Sleep Medicine
Perioperative Medicine   |   March 2019
Disruption of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Homeostasis in Adolescent Rats after Neonatal Anesthesia
Anesthesiology Newly Published on March 13, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002660
Anesthesiology Newly Published on March 13, 2019. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002660
Abstract

Editor’s Perspective:

What We Already Know about This Topic:

  • Anesthesia in adult rodents has been associated with alterations in sleep architecture that persist up to 18 h after anesthesia

What This Article Tells Us That Is New:

  • Anesthesia with isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and midazolam on postnatal day 7 is associated with alterations in sleep architecture three weeks later in adolescent rats

Background: Previous studies suggest that rapid eye movement sleep rebound and disruption of rapid eye movement sleep architecture occur during the first 24 h after general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics in adult rats. However, it is unknown whether rapid eye movement sleep alterations persist beyond the anesthetic recovery phase in neonatal rats. This study tested the hypothesis that rapid eye movement sleep disturbances would be present in adolescent rats treated with anesthesia on postnatal day 7.

Methods: Forty-four neonatal rats were randomly allocated to treatment with anesthesia consisting of midazolam, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane or control conditions for 2 h or 6 h. Electroencephalographic and electromyographic electrodes were implanted and recordings obtained between postnatal days 26 and 34. The primary outcome was time spent in rapid eye movement sleep. Data were analyzed using two-tailed unpaired t tests and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance.

Results: Rats treated with midazolam, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane exhibited a significant increase in rapid eye movement sleep three weeks later when compared with control rats, regardless of whether they were treated for 2 h (174.0 ± 7.2 min in anesthetized, 108.6 ± 5.3 in controls, P < 0.0001) or 6 h (151.6 ± 9.9 min in anesthetized, 108.8 ± 7.1 in controls, P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Treatment with midazolam, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane on postnatal day 7 increases rapid eye movement sleep three weeks later in rats.