Newly Published
Pain Medicine  |   January 2018
Pro- versus Antinociceptive Nongenomic Effects of Neuronal Mineralocorticoid versus Glucocorticoid Receptors during Rat Hind Paw Inflammation
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany (X.L., M. Shaqura, D.M., S.A.M., M. Schäfer); the Department of Anaesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany (A.B.); and the Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan (S.Y.)
  • Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).
    Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are available in both the HTML and PDF versions of this article. Links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the Journal’s Web site (www.anesthesiology.org).×
  • X.L. and M. Shaqura contributed equally to this article.
    X.L. and M. Shaqura contributed equally to this article.×
  • Submitted for publication July 25, 2017. Accepted for publication November 21, 2017.
    Submitted for publication July 25, 2017. Accepted for publication November 21, 2017.×
  • Acknowledgments: The authors thank Claudia Spies, M.D., Ph.D. (Director and Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Berlin, Germany), for her continuous support, Petra von Kwiatkowski and Susanne Runewitz (technicians, Berlin, Germany) for their technical assistance, and Giulia Schäfer for language editing. We are very grateful for the gift of the GR and MR antibodies from M. Kawata, Ph.D. (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan) and Celso E. Gomez-Sanchez (University of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi). The incentive for this work was the previous clinical findings of the beneficial role of corticosteroid receptor agonists/antagonists in patients with inflammation and pain by the Prof. KH René Koczorek Foundation, Neuried, Germany.
    Acknowledgments: The authors thank Claudia Spies, M.D., Ph.D. (Director and Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Berlin, Germany), for her continuous support, Petra von Kwiatkowski and Susanne Runewitz (technicians, Berlin, Germany) for their technical assistance, and Giulia Schäfer for language editing. We are very grateful for the gift of the GR and MR antibodies from M. Kawata, Ph.D. (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan) and Celso E. Gomez-Sanchez (University of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi). The incentive for this work was the previous clinical findings of the beneficial role of corticosteroid receptor agonists/antagonists in patients with inflammation and pain by the Prof. KH René Koczorek Foundation, Neuried, Germany.×
  • Research Support: This work was supported by the Prof. KH René Koczorek Foundation, Neuried, Germany. Mr. Mohamed was supported by a scholarship from the Faculty of Science at Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt, and the Egyptian Government.
    Research Support: This work was supported by the Prof. KH René Koczorek Foundation, Neuried, Germany. Mr. Mohamed was supported by a scholarship from the Faculty of Science at Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt, and the Egyptian Government.×
  • Competing Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.
    Competing Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.×
  • Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Mousa: Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Charite Mitte, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany. shaaban.mousa@charite.de. Information on purchasing reprints may be found at www.anesthesiology.org or on the masthead page at the beginning of this issue. Anesthesiology’s articles are made freely accessible to all readers, for personal use only, 6 months from the cover date of the issue.
Article Information
Pain Medicine / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems / Pain Medicine
Pain Medicine   |   January 2018
Pro- versus Antinociceptive Nongenomic Effects of Neuronal Mineralocorticoid versus Glucocorticoid Receptors during Rat Hind Paw Inflammation
Anesthesiology Newly Published on January 19, 2018. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002087
Anesthesiology Newly Published on January 19, 2018. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002087
Abstract

Background: In naive rats, corticosteroids activate neuronal membrane–bound glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in spinal cord and periphery to modulate nociceptive behavior by nongenomic mechanisms. Here we investigated inflammation-induced changes in neuronal versus glial glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and their ligand-mediated nongenomic impact on mechanical nociception in rats.

Methods: In Wistar rats (n = 5 to 7/group) with Freund’s complete adjuvant hind paw inflammation, we examined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in spinal cord and peripheral sensory neurons versus glial using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and radioligand binding. Moreover, we explored the expression of mineralocorticoid receptors protecting enzyme 11-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 as well as the nociceptive behavioral changes after glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors agonist or antagonist application.

Results: Hind paw inflammation resulted in significant upregulation of glucocorticoid receptors in nociceptive neurons of spinal cord (60%) and dorsal root ganglia (15%) as well as mineralocorticoid receptors, while corticosteroid plasma concentrations remained unchanged. Mineralocorticoid (83 ± 16 fmol/mg) but not glucocorticoid (104 ± 20 fmol/mg) membrane binding sites increased twofold in dorsal root ganglia concomitant with upregulated 11-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (43%). Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in spinal microglia and astrocytes was small. Importantly, glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist canrenoate-K rapidly and dose-dependently attenuated nociceptive behavior. Isobolographic analysis of the combination of both drugs showed subadditive but not synergistic or additive effects.

Conclusions: The enhanced mechanical sensitivity of inflamed hind paws accompanied with corticosteroid receptor upregulation in spinal and peripheral sensory neurons was attenuated immediately after glucocorticoid receptor agonist and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist administration, suggesting acute nongenomic effects consistent with detected membrane-bound corticosteroid receptors.