Newly Published
Review Article  |   December 2017
Exposure of Developing Brain to General Anesthesia: What Is the Animal Evidence?
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.
  • Submitted for publication February 16, 2017. Accepted for publication November 24, 2017.
    Submitted for publication February 16, 2017. Accepted for publication November 24, 2017.×
  • Research Support: This study was supported by the grant Nos. R0144517 (National Institutes of Health [NIH; Bethesda, Maryland]/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD; Bethesda, Maryland]), R0144517-S (NIH/NICHD), R01 GM118197 (NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences [NIGMS; Bethesda, Maryland]), R21 HD080281 (NIH/NICHD), John E. Fogarty Award 007423-128322 (NIH), and March of Dimes National Award, USA (to Dr. Jevtovic-Todorovic). Dr. Jevtovic-Todorovic was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association (Dallas, Texas).
    Research Support: This study was supported by the grant Nos. R0144517 (National Institutes of Health [NIH; Bethesda, Maryland]/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD; Bethesda, Maryland]), R0144517-S (NIH/NICHD), R01 GM118197 (NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences [NIGMS; Bethesda, Maryland]), R21 HD080281 (NIH/NICHD), John E. Fogarty Award 007423-128322 (NIH), and March of Dimes National Award, USA (to Dr. Jevtovic-Todorovic). Dr. Jevtovic-Todorovic was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association (Dallas, Texas).×
  • Competing Interests: The author declares no competing interests.
    Competing Interests: The author declares no competing interests.×
  • Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Jevtovic-Todorovic: Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12401 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045. vesna.jevtovic-todorovic@ucdenver.edu. Information on purchasing reprints may be found at www.anesthesiology.org or on the masthead page at the beginning of this issue. Anesthesiology’s articles are made freely accessible to all readers, for personal use only, 6 months from the cover date of the issue.
Article Information
Review Article / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Review Article   |   December 2017
Exposure of Developing Brain to General Anesthesia: What Is the Animal Evidence?
Anesthesiology Newly Published on December 21, 2017. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002047
Anesthesiology Newly Published on December 21, 2017. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002047
Abstract

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an official warning to all practicing physicians regarding potentially detrimental behavioral and cognitive sequelae of an early exposure to general anesthesia during in utero and in early postnatal life. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration concern is focused on children younger than three years of age who are exposed to clinically used general anesthetics and sedatives for three hours or longer. Although human evidence is limited and controversial, a large body of scientific evidence gathered from several mammalian species demonstrates that there is a potential foundation for concern. Considering this new development in public awareness, this review focuses on nonhuman primates because their brain development is the closest to humans in terms of not only timing and duration, but in terms of complexity as well. The review compares those primate findings to previously published work done with rodents.