Editorial Views  |   May 2017
If We Ask a Mouse about Biotrauma, Will It Give Us a Sensible Answer?
Author Notes
  • From the Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
  • Corresponding article on page 909.
    Corresponding article on page 909.×
  • Accepted for publication February 7, 2017.
    Accepted for publication February 7, 2017.×
  • Address correspondence to Dr. Takata: m.takata@imperial.ac.uk
Article Information
Editorial Views / Critical Care / Respiratory System
Editorial Views   |   May 2017
If We Ask a Mouse about Biotrauma, Will It Give Us a Sensible Answer?
Anesthesiology 5 2017, Vol.126, 766-767. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000001606
Anesthesiology 5 2017, Vol.126, 766-767. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000001606
ACUTE respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of mortality in critical care, but to date, no specific treatment exists. There is growing concern about our failure to translate from bench to bedside within the acute lung injury research community, and the crucial importance of better modeling in preclinical studies to identify targets with more predictive power is increasingly appreciated. Mechanical ventilation, while being a vital tool for support of ARDS patients, produces or worsens lung injury. This ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has substantive negative impact on the outcome of ARDS. Increasing tidal volumes are associated with enhanced release of local and systemic inflammatory mediators in patients, and animal models demonstrated that excessive tidal volumes induce lung inflammation, edema, and physiologic dysfunction. Such findings have lent support to the biotrauma hypothesis, i.e., VILI promotes the release of inflammatory mediators, which play a critical role in the progression of injury of the lungs as well as other systemic organs.1  In this issue of Anesthesiology, Lex and Uhlig2  investigate whether this biotrauma can be studied in so-called one-hit models of VILI in mice. Their results provide useful information for physiologists to better design mouse VILI experiments, but more importantly, provoke a series of important questions that are essential for clinicians desiring to interpret animal VILI models for future clinical translation.
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