Correspondence  |   November 2007
Nasotracheal Intubation in Children
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rajesh Mahajan, M.B.B.S., M.D.
  • *Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences, Jammu, India.
Article Information
Correspondence   |   November 2007
Nasotracheal Intubation in Children
Anesthesiology 11 2007, Vol.107, 855-856. doi:10.1097/01.anes.0000287344.94290.8f
Anesthesiology 11 2007, Vol.107, 855-856. doi:10.1097/01.anes.0000287344.94290.8f
To the Editor:—
We were interested in the recent study by Watt et al  .1 to reduce epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation in children by telescoping the tip of the endotracheal tube into the funnel end of the red rubber urethral catheter. However, we have a few points to make.
The results of using a prewarmed tube for nasotracheal intubation are variable.1–3 Although studies in adults suggest reduced bleeding, its efficacy in pediatric patients seems to be poor.1–4 In the control group in the study by Watt et al  .,1 where tracheal intubation was achieved by using a tube at room temperature, the incidence of bleeding was 56%, significantly higher than in the control group of Elwood et al  .,4 wherein a thermosoftened tube was used and the incidence of bleeding was only 29%. Further, although Watt et al  .1 report that a 39% incidence of epistaxis in patients in whom the nasotracheal tube was carried with a thermosoftened uncuffed tube is consistent with that reported by Elwood et al  .4 in their thermosoftening group (29%), it is still higher in the study of Watt et al  . Considering these facts, in the study by Watt et al  ., the higher incidence of bleeding in patients in whom a prewarmed tube was used can be attributed to the use of a larger tube (selected by Cole’s formula, i.e  ., ID (mm) = (age/4) + 4) rather than lack of efficacy of thermosoftening and topical vasoconstriction, especially when no direct comparison of epistaxis, with and without a nasal topical vasoconstrictor, was made by the authors. For nasotracheal intubation, it is strongly recommended to use an endotracheal tube with an ID 0.5–1.0 mm less than that used for an oral tube, to allow for smooth and atraumatic passage of the nasal tube.5 This is evident in various adult and pediatric studies of nasotracheal intubation. Elwood et al  . selected the uncuffed tube for nasotracheal intubation by the formula of Motoyama6 (i.e  ., ID (mm) = (age/4) + 3.5) and, as aforementioned, had better results in the thermosoftening group than achieved by Watt et al  ., who used endotracheal tubes at room temperature and after thermosoftening.4,7,8 Although we wholeheartedly agree with Watt et al  .’s report of better results than Elwood et al  . in regard to clinically relevant bleeding (5% vs  . 9.4%) in patients in whom a red rubber catheter was used, we believe that selection of the tube by the formula of Motoyama or Khine (i.e  ., ID (mm) = (age/4) + 3.0) by Watt et al  . could have further reduced the incidence of clinically significant nasal bleeding in all three groups.5,6 
Regarding the intubation attempts, Watt et al  . did not mention the number of times each naris was entered or the navigability (smooth or impinged) of the endotracheal tube. No data were provided regarding postoperative nasal complications such as nasal pain, persistent discharge or bleeding, difficult breathing, or crusting, which are important secondary outcomes in patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation and are likely to be significantly affected by the size of tube used, thermosoftening, and whether topical nasal vasoconstrictor drops were used.5,7,8 Including these sequelae in their trial could have better delineated the role of the vasoconstrictor in delayed outcomes of pediatric nasotracheal intubation.
*Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences, Jammu, India.
Watt S, Pickhardt D, Lerman J, Armstrong J, Creighton PR, Feldman L: Telescoping tracheal tubes into catheters minimize epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation in children. Anesthesiology 2007; 106:238–42Watt, S Pickhardt, D Lerman, J Armstrong, J Creighton, PR Feldman, L
Kim YC, Lee SH, Noh GJ, Cho SY, Yeom JH, Shin WJ, Lee DH, Ryu JS, Park YS, Cha KJ, Lee SC: Thermosoftening treatment of nasotracheal tube before intubation can reduce epistaxis and nasal damage. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:698–701Kim, YC Lee, SH Noh, GJ Cho, SY Yeom, JH Shin, WJ Lee, DH Ryu, JS Park, YS Cha, KJ Lee, SC
Lu PP, Liu HP, Shyr MH, Ho AC, Wang YL, Tan PP, Yang CH: Softened endotracheal tube reduces the incidence and severity of epistaxis following nasotracheal intubation. Acta Anesthesiol Sin 1998; 36:193–7Lu, PP Liu, HP Shyr, MH Ho, AC Wang, YL Tan, PP Yang, CH
Elwood T, Stillions DM, Woo DW, Bradford HM, Ramamoorthy C: Nasotracheal intubation: A randomized trial of two methods. Anesthesiology 2002; 96:51–3Elwood, T Stillions, DM Woo, DW Bradford, HM Ramamoorthy, C
Hall CEJ, Shutt LE: Nasotracheal intubation for head and neck surgery. Anaesthesia 2003; 58:249–56Hall, CEJ Shutt, LE
Motoyama EK: Endotracheal intubation, Smith’s Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 5th edition. Edited by Motoyama EK. St. Louis, CV Mosby, 1990, pp 269–75Motoyama, EK Motoyama EK St. Louis CV Mosby
Lee JH, Kim CH, Bahk JH, Park KS: The influence of endotracheal tube tip design on nasal trauma during nasotracheal intubation: Magill-tip versus  Murphy-tip. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1226–9Lee, JH Kim, CH Bahk, JH Park, KS
Kihara S, Kamatsuzaki T, Brimacombe JR, Yaguchi Y, Taguchi N, Watanabe S: A silicone-based wire-reinforced tracheal tube with a hemispherical bevel decreases nasal morbidity for nasotracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:1488–91Kihara, S Kamatsuzaki, T Brimacombe, JR Yaguchi, Y Taguchi, N Watanabe, S