Free
Correspondence  |   April 2007
Can Precise Data Improve a Nonprecise Anesthetic?
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Axel R. Heller, M.D.
    *
  • *University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany.
Article Information
Correspondence
Correspondence   |   April 2007
Can Precise Data Improve a Nonprecise Anesthetic?
Anesthesiology 4 2007, Vol.106, 882-883. doi:10.1097/01.anes.0000264785.14855.ea
Anesthesiology 4 2007, Vol.106, 882-883. doi:10.1097/01.anes.0000264785.14855.ea
In Reply:—
We thank Dr. Lambert for his comments, which add interesting aspects to the discussion.
The difficulties of controlling local anesthetic (LA) spread during “isobaric” subarachnoid block in daily practice are well-known. As Dr. Lambert states, there is a manifold of influencing factors whereof several are unknown to the practitioner before LA injection (e.g.  , lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid volume).
Former studies have confirmed that pharmacokinetic action of cold and warm LA is quite different in the subarachnoid space1–5 in terms of faster onset and higher maximum level of sensory block when using the warmed solution. Moreover, prolonged analgesia was reported by Dr. Lambert.6 
After equilibration of the injected LA to cerebrospinal fluid (body) temperature, with the exception of articaine and mepivacaine, all commercially available LA solutions will behave hypobarically. This means that LA after injection at room temperature will initially descend and, after passing the isogravimetric point, ascend. This is supported by the fact that by keeping the patient in a sitting position during and after administration of warmed LA, a higher maximum level of sensory blockade is obtained.3–5 Shortening the period of sitting or puncturing in the lateral decubitus position masks the hypobaric effect of warmed LA.2 This may, likewise, be illustrated by Dr. Lambert's study,6 where no difference in maximum level of sensory blockade was found in patients punctured in the lateral decubitus position and then immediately turned to the supine horizontal position. The clinical impact of positioning during “isobaric” subarachnoid block is further supported by the effect of (un)intended late posture change.7,8 Further, cerebrospinal fluid density is lower in women.9 Therefore, the absolute effect of warming LA on individual baricity must be considered smaller in females than in males at a given body temperature and may bias the results.6 
From the available data, we conclude that the sitting position during puncture is a prerequisite for obtaining clinical impact of the hypobaricity concept of warmed LA solutions in terms of higher maximum level of sensory blockade, and a smaller variability of the number of blocked segments. Whether those observations are clinically transferable into lower doses of warmed LA in the sitting position must be evaluated in forthcoming trials.
With regard to puncturing in the lateral decubitus position, another point of view deserves discussion. Because the sensory nerves derive from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the roots are located posterior, in the supine position hypobaric (37ºC) LA will ascend ventrally apart from these target structures and may even have less analgesic effect. In this regard, it would have been of particular interest if in his work6 Dr. Lambert observed differences between anterior or posterior nerve roots. Because motor neurons and sudomotor output derive from the anterior roots, in their setting the usual difference of two segments between sensory and (sudo)motor block may have been lost in the hypobaric (37ºC) group. This hypothesis is supported by data in a comparable setting (lateral decubitus puncture) from Higuchi et al.  ,10 who found a trend to correlation between motor block onset and cerebrospinal fluid density—not, however, between time to peak sensory block level and cerebrospinal fluid density.
The discussion on pKa values of LA in conjunction with subarachnoid block, as already addressed elsewhere,6,11 should not be overemphasized. LAs gain body temperature within 2 min12 when injected at room temperature, and pKa values are then equilibrated with those LAs injected at 37ºC. Therefore, the decreased pKa values of LAs injected at 37ºC6 are comparatively effective for 2 min and may account for earlier onset of blockade but not, however, for the prolonged LA effects more than 2 h later.
Taken together, the discussed effects carry uncertainty for daily practice but may, besides others, explain the high interindividual ranges in maximum level of sensory blockade reported in many studies using “isobaric” solutions. In vitro  studies and modeling as performed in our work11 always observe and depict a limited part of reality. They never allow conclusions on the reality itself; rather, they may be hypothesis generating or may improve existing hypotheses, which then must be verified (or falsified) in reality. The problems associated with the complex physiology of subarachnoid block may not be solved with simple physics. The intention of our study was to identify isobaric temperatures and, thus, make the course of LA within the subarachnoid space more predictable to improve the nonprecise anesthetic  .
*University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany.
References
Callesen T, Jarnvig I, Thage B, Krantz T, Christiansen C: Influence of temperature of bupivacaine on spread of spinal analgesia. Anaesthesia 1991; 46:17–9Callesen, T Jarnvig, I Thage, B Krantz, T Christiansen, C
Kristoffersen E, Sloth E, Husted JC, Bach AB, Husegaard HC, Zulow I: Spinal anaesthesia with plain 0.5% bupivacaine at 19 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Br J Anaesth 1990; 65:504–7Kristoffersen, E Sloth, E Husted, JC Bach, AB Husegaard, HC Zulow, I
Stienstra R, van Poorten JF: The temperature of bupivacaine 0.5% affects the sensory level of spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1988; 67:272–6Stienstra, R van Poorten, JF
Stienstra R, Gielen M, Van PF, Kroon JW: Spinal anesthesia with plain bupivacaine 0.5%: Regression of sensory and motor blockade with different temperatures of the anesthetic solution. Anesth Analg 1989; 69:593–7Stienstra, R Gielen, M Van, PF Kroon, JW
Litz RJ, Reytan N, Vicent O, Wiessner D, Heller AR, Koch T: The influence of the temperature of bupivacaine 0.5% used for lumbosacral spinal anaesthesia (Taylor's approach) on onset and extent of block. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2005; 22:97Litz, RJ Reytan, N Vicent, O Wiessner, D Heller, AR Koch, T
Beardsworth D, Lambert DH: Warming 0.5% bupivacaine to 37°C increases duration of spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth 1989; 14:199–202Beardsworth, D Lambert, DH
Niemi L, Tuominen M, Pitkanen M, Rosenberg PH: Effect of late posture change on the level of spinal anaesthesia with plain bupivacaine. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71:807–9Niemi, L Tuominen, M Pitkanen, M Rosenberg, PH
Vicent O, Litz RJ, Hubler M, Koch T: Secondary cranial extension after spinal anesthesia with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine following postural change [in German]. Anaesthesist 2003; 52:1035–8Vicent, O Litz, RJ Hubler, M Koch, T
Schiffer E, Van GE, Gamulin Z: Influence of sex on cerebrospinal fluid density in adults. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83:943–4Schiffer, E Van, GE Gamulin, Z
Higuchi H, Hirata J, Adachi Y, Kazama T: Influence of lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid density, velocity, and volume on extent and duration of plain bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:106–14Higuchi, H Hirata, J Adachi, Y Kazama, T
Heller AR, Zimmermann K, Seele K, Rossel T, Koch T, Litz RJ: Modifying the baricity of local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia by temperature adjustment: Model calculations. Anesthesiology 2006; 105:346–53Heller, AR Zimmermann, K Seele, K Rossel, T Koch, T Litz, RJ
Davis H, King WR: Densities of common spinal anesthetic solutions at body temperature. Anesthesiology 1952; 13:184–8Davis, H King, WR