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Correspondence  |   November 2006
Edison’s Anesthetic
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Amos J. Wright, M.L.S.
    *
  • *School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
Article Information
Correspondence
Correspondence   |   November 2006
Edison’s Anesthetic
Anesthesiology 11 2006, Vol.105, 1063. doi:
Anesthesiology 11 2006, Vol.105, 1063. doi:
To the Editor:—
American inventor and businessman Thomas Alva Edison is legendary for his contributions to such technologies as the lightbulb, the telephone, the phonograph, and motion pictures, among many others.1 In his lifetime, Edison obtained 1,093 US patents and some 1,239 patents in other countries. Little known among these efforts was his “improved anesthetic compound.”
In the summer of 1882, George F. Shrady (Founder and Editor, Medical Record  1866–1904) (1837–1907), reported that Thomas Edison invented a new anesthetic made of chloroform, ether, alcohol, and camphor and had applied for British and German patents.2 The witty but misinformed editor added, “Edison may wish to use it on his stockholders until electric light was in successful operation.”
In fact, the “anesthetic” actually was an analgesic liniment that Edison had prepared in early 1878. He named it Polyform and advertised it for “neurologic pain.” Polyform was a mixture of chloroform, ether, camphor gum, alcohol, chloral hydrate, morphine, and oils of peppermint and clove. Edison believed that his compound’s various analgesics would potentiate each other and that the mixture would attack pain in a “shotgun manner.”3 
In 1879, Edison applied for a US patent but, for unknown reasons, withdrew his application shortly thereafter. In February 1880, the British patent No. 599 was granted to his London agents for a slightly modified compound.3 The editor of the Medical Record  was misinformed: Edison did not apply for a German patent3 (written personal communication, Hubert Rothe, Director, Information Department, German Patent and Trademark Office, Munich, Germany, May 2004).
Topical ether and, especially, chloroform had been widely used for musculoskeletal and neurologic pains since their discovery.4 At the time of Edison’s invention, not only were liniments of chloroform and of camphor used in the United States,5 but there also existed lotions made of chloroform, camphor, ether, alcohol, morphine, and chloral hydrate.6 One, Sankt Jakob Oel, had been popular in Germany since the mid-1870s. It was marketed in the United States during the 1880s under the name of St. Jacob’s Oil by the firms of C.A. Voegeler in Baltimore and Kroeger Ltd. of Cincinnati. Its formula is given in several US formularies.6–8 
Whether Edison knew of St. Jacob’s Oil when he invented his Polyform or whether he learned of its existence later on is unknown. The latter may explain why he did not apply for a German patent and withdrew his US application.
The authors thank Gregory J. Higby, Ph.D. (Professor and Director of the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, Madison, Wisconsin), Michael A. Flannery, Ph.D. (Associate Professor and Associate Director for Historical Collections, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama), and Hubert Rothe (Director, Information Department, German Patent and Trademark Office, Munich, Germany) for their valuable information.
*School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
References
Josephson M: Edison: A Biography. New York, Wiley, 1992Josephson, M New York Wiley
Edison’s anaesthetic. Edited by Shrady GF. Medical Record 1882; 22:374
The Papers of Thomas A. Edison. Vol 4. Edited by Israel PB, Nier AP, Carlat P. Baltimore, London, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989, pp 228–9Israel PB, Nier AP, Carlat P Baltimore, London Johns Hopkins University Press
Kent DF: The Medical Uses of Ether and Chloroform in the 19th Century: How Medical Uses Contrasted with Surgical Uses [dissertation]. Madison, New Jersey, Drew University, 1995Kent, DF Madison, New Jersey Drew University
The Dispensary of the United States of America, 13th ed. Edited by Wood GB, Bache F. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1871, pp 1234–5Wood GB, Bache F Philadelphia JB Lippincott
Rice C: Hospital Formulary of the Department of Public Charities and Correction of the City of New York, 4th edition. New York, Printing Bureau, Ward’s Island, 1889, p 231Rice, C New York Printing Bureau, Ward’s Island
Fenner B: Fenner’s Twentieth Century Formulary and International Dispensatory, 12th edition. Westfield, New York, B. Fennel Publisher, 1903, p 1347Fenner, B Westfield, New York B. Fennel Publisher
Street JP: The Composition of Certain Patent and Proprietary Medicines. Chicago, AMA Publications, 1917, p 233Street, JP Chicago AMA Publications